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Toolkit: Patient Assessment Skills

Overall Physical Assessment

- Patient Assessment in Pharmacy Practice

This text offers a practical approach to patient assessment skills in pharmacy practice. The book covers basic anatomy and physiology, pathology, and system assessment through interview, communication, and some physical exams.  Designed to help pharmacists and pharmacy students correlate signs and symptoms of possible diseases. 

Jones RM. Patient Assessment in Pharmacy Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer, 2016.

Here is a link for purchase: click here.


- Clinical Skills for Pharmacists: a Patient Focused Approach

This text describes fundamental skills such as communication, physical assessment, laboratory and diagnostic information, as well as patient case presentation, therapeutic planning, and monitoring of drug intake.

Tietze KJ, ed.  Clinical Skills for Pharmacists; a Patient Focused Approach. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby; 2012.

Here is a link for purchase: click here. 

 

Blood Pressure

The following link is a video published in the New England Journal of Medicine on how to measure blood pressure; to view this video click here.

Williams JS, Brown SM, Conlin PR.  Blood Pressure Measurement.  N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 29;360(5):e6.

  

Vitals

The following link contains information on how to measure heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, and blood pressure: click here.

 

Body Mass Index (BMI)

The following link is an online BMI calculator: click here.  

 

The following link discusses how to assess weight using BMI and waist circumference: click here. 

 

Pain Assessment

Click here for the PPA opioid dispensing guidelines. 


Community Pharmacy-Based Point of Care Testing

The following link discusses the basics of point of care testing in the community pharmacy setting: click here.  


Home Blood Pressure Monitors

The Pharmacist Letter published an article which outlines ways to educate patients about proper blood pressure measurement along with information for patients and pharmacists in choosing a monitor for home blood pressure monitoring: (subscription needed to access article.) Click here.

 

The following link includes a comprehensive list of blood pressure measurement devices by manufacturer.  The list of devices is organized by category that meets validation requirements. Click here. 

 

Diabetic Foot Exam


- Preventative Foot Care (ADA)

The following link contains an article written by the American Diabetes Association on preventive foot  care  including examination and wound care.

American Diabetes Association. Prevention Foot Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27(1): s63-64.

For this article: click here.


- Sample Foot Examination Documentation Form

The following link includes a sample foot exam documentation form with step-by-step instructions: click here.

  

- Comprehensive Foot Examination and Risk Assessment

The following link includes an article written by the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and discusses comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment

Boulton AJ, Armstrong DG, Albert SF, et al. Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment: a report of the task force of the foot care interest group of the American Diabetes Association, with endorsement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Diabetes Care. 2008 Aug;31 (8): 1679-85.

For this article: click here.

 

- Foot Exam Video

The following link is a video on how to perform a diabetic foot exam and includes step-by-step written instructions: click here.  

 

Drug Therapy Assessment

  

- Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model

Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model Version 2.0 is designed to improve collaboration among pharmacists, physicians, and other healthcare professionals; enhance communication between patients and their healthcare team; and optimize medication use for improved patient outcomes.

American Pharmacists Association; National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation.  Medication Management in pharmacy practice: core elements of an MTM service model (version 2.0) J Am Pharm Assoc. 2008 May-Jun;48(3):341-53.

To view: click here. 


- Pharmaceutical Care Practice: The Clinician's Guide

This text explains the pharmacist's role in working with patients to develop drug therapy strategies that improve patients' quality of life by ensuring the best possible therapeutic outcomes.

Cipolle RJ, Morley PC, eds. Pharmaceutical Care Practice: The Clinician's Guide. 2nd ed. New York: The McGraw- Hill Companies; 2012.

Here is a link to purchase: click here. 

 

- Clinical Pharmacy Should Adopt a Consistent Process of Direct Patient

The American College of Clinical Pharmacy published a white paper entitled Clinical Pharmacy Should Adopt a Consistent Process of Direct Patient Care which discusses a standardized process to patient care.

Harris IM, Phillips B, Boyce E. Clinical Pharmacy Should Adopt a Consistent Process of Direct Patient Care.  Pharmacotherapy. 2014;34(8): e133-e148.

To view: click here.

 

- How to Implement the Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process

How to Implement the Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process aims to help pharmacists understand the components of the patient care process and apply the process to patients in all pharmacy practice settings.

Bennett MS, Kliethermes MA, eds.  How to Implement the Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process. Washington DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2015.

A detailed description: click here. 

 

- I ESCAPED CPR

The I ESCAPED CPR mnemonic was created introduce pharmacy students (and pharmacists) to aid them in remembering the most important parameters when assessing a patient's drug therapy. 

Bruno CB, Ip E, Shah B, Linn WD. A Mnemonic for Pharmacy Students to Use in Pharmacotherapy Assessment.  AJPE. 2012; 76 (1) Article 16.

To access the article: click here.  

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